Myoma U Than Kywe ျမိဳ႕မ ဦးသန္းၾကြယ္
“Myoma”, "U" and "Thakin" are not part of his given name but is an honorific.
Myoma U Than Kywe, also Thakin Than Kywe and U Than Kywe; Burmese: ျမိဳ႕မဦးသန္းၾကြယ္ (born December 26, 1924, Thongwa Township Rangoon in Burma [Myanmar]—died September 22, 1983, Yangon), one of the Burmese independence leaders, Burmese politician, President of the All Burma Student's Union, and Member of Central Executive Committee of the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL), Myanmar (formerly Burma) from 1946 to 1963. “Myoma” and "U" are honorifics rather than part of his given name.
He has five brothers and one sister. They are U Maung Maung, Thakin Thein Tun (Bo Thein Tun), Daw Nyunt Khin, U Myo Myint , U Myo Thant, and U Tin Htut .
He wrote many articles for the Oway, the Rangoon University student annual magazine and the won- tha- yu- wa Myoma school magazines.
“Myoma” is a name of very famous first national high school in Rangoon Burma since 1920. Then Myoma another definition is centre of city (or) metropolitan region in Burmese in Burma. Myoma school was the first-born all National High School in Burma. The foundation of Myoma school began in 1920.
Only with the strong effort of Sayagyi U Ba Lwin, the first headmaster of the Myoma National School and Bagan Set U Thaw, Chairman of the Myoma National school and the parents' donation, could the school be successfully completed. Myoma national schools first born out of the national freedom struggle together with national education and national spirit. Myoma school gained recognition in the course of Burma history and Burma national education sector.
He is a devout Theravada Buddhist and Burmese nationalist. He had long been the popular student leader of Burma. He is a devout Theravada Buddhist and Burmese nationalist. He had long been the popular student leader of Burma.
He was born to U Sein (Lands owner) and Daw Sein Kyawt (Lands owner).
He attended at Myoma National High School in Rangoon.
He was educated at the University of Rangoon (Yangon), from which he received his B.A. degree. He was a famous politician and teetotaler. From the beginning, Yangon University has been at the centre of civil discontent throughout its history. All three nationwide strikes against the British (1920, 1936, 1938 and 1946) began at then Rangoon University. Anti-colonial movement's leaders like General Aung San, U Nu, U Kyaw Nyein, U Ba Swe, General Ne Win, U Thant, Dr Than Tun, Thurira U Than Maung, Myoma U Than Kywe were all alumni of the Rangoon university.
He was elected as the president of the Myoma National Students Union in Rangoon, president of the Rangoon Students Union, vice president of the Rangoon University Student Union, president of the All Burma Student Union and joining student political movements 1938.
The All Burma Federation of Student Unions (ABFSU) is the umbrella organization for all the student unions in Burma (also Myanmar) and is an active voice for academic freedoms and student rights throughout the country. He was elected to above positions by the Unanimous votes of his colleagues and all students in Burma. During the Second World War Myoma U Than Kywe’s political life began.
He participated as a young student boycotter in the 1938 general strike against British colonial rule, later joining the Dobama Asiayone. He became involved in the resistance movement; he served as a Township leader the Asha Lu Nge Asiayone (Asia Youth) in Thongwa Township Rangoon in 1942.
The Thakins were a Burmese nationalist group formed around the 1930s and composed of young, disgruntled intellectuals. Drawing their name from the way in which the British were addressed during colonial times, thakin means "lord" or "master", just as the Indians called the British "sahib". The party, however, is formally known as the Dobama Asiayone Movement (which can be translated into either "We Burmans" or "Our Burma").
In 1940, a Japanese Army officer, Colonel Suzuki Keiji, took thirty Thakins (including Thakin Aung San) for military training in Japanese schools situated in Formosa and Hainan Island. These thirty Thakins were the founding members of the Burma Independence Army, which would later number around 8000 men. When the Japanese invaded Burma in late 1941 and early 1942, the B.I.A marched with the Japanese to expel the British.
The Thakins were credited for the formation of the Burma Independence Army (B.I.A).
He joined and participated to the Burma Independence Army (B.I.A) and the Asian Youths League 1942. On 1 August 1943, the Japanese granted Burma independence, of sorts. The BIA was renamed the Burma National Army (BNA). Recognizing that the Japanese had merely replaced the British rather than providing the independence they sought, in March 1945 the BNA turned on the Japanese as the British XIV Army advanced on Rangoon.
When Burma was occupied by the Empire of Japan, the Japanese had assisted formation of the Burma Independence Army, and trained the Thirty Comrades, who were the founders of the modern Armed Forces (Tatmadaw). The Burmese hoped to gain support of the Japanese in expelling the British, so that Burma could become independent.
In 1942, he taught Burmese patriotic youths in Education such as history, patriotism, Burmese literature, nationalism, geography, Thaing (Burmese Martial Art) along with Sayagyi Min Thu Wun and Sayagyi U Pyi Thein (Martial Art Expert) according to the leadership of U Ba Gyan (chairman of Asian Youths Association). He speaks clearly and wisely with a commanding voice. He is kind, good-natured and helpful. He gives reasons when we admonish pupils. The period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, he was the headmaster of the Asian Youths School at Thongwa Township and Kungyangon Township. He taught many students free of charge with Sayagyi Min Thu Wun.
He said to his pupils:
Never lower your pure mind and good character and excellent effort in any occasion……
Do your part to build a happy family….
Do your part to build a happy group……….
Do your part to build a happy association………
Do your part to build a happy country……….
Seek to be a peacemaker rather than to tease, fight and quarrel……..
You have the ability to choose righteousness and truth, no matter what your circumstances………
Do not idle away your time……..
Be willing to work hard for yourself and other…….
Choose to do many good things of your own free will…….
You must maintain an enthusiasm for learning in education throughout your life……
Young men motto is stand for truth, righteousness, efficiency, courage and courtesy…….
Do not participate at any crime and all evil………
Be honest with yourself, others and your country.”
He said them: “Until I die, I shall not remove away my honesty from me." He always has been strongly on the side of non-violence. He always has been strongly a stand up for truth and righteousness.
During the ruling time of the British colonists and the Japanese Fascists in Burma, Burmese Thaing martial art experts and Myanmar Youths were suppressed and banned in various ways for fear of spreading the Martial Art among the people. The rulers of that time used many ways to stop the spread of the Art by prescribing laws on weapons, taking actions, arresting and instilling fear into the public.
General Aung San, father of the opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, nationalist leaders formed the Anti-Fascist Organization in August 1944, which asked the United Kingdom to form a coalition with other allies against the Japanese. By April 1945, the Allies had driven out the Japanese. Subsequently, negotiations began between the Burmese and the British for independence.
Myoma Than kywe was one of the leaders at GENERAL STRIKE on September 1946 Rangoon. Sir Dorman-Smith was replaced by Sir Reginald Dorman-Smith as the new governor, and almost immediately after his appointment the Rangoon Police went on strike. The strike, starting in September 1946, then spread from the police to government employees and came close to becoming a general strike. Sir Hubert Rance calmed the situation by meeting with General Aung San and convincing him to join the Governor's Executive Council along with other members of the AFPFL. The new executive council, which now had increased credibility in the country, began negotiations for Burmese independence, which were concluded successfully in London as the Aung San-Attlee Agreement on 27 January 1947.
He was the one of the leaders of the Panglong Conference along with National Leader General Aung San that initiated the formation of the new nation of Union of Burma in February 12, 1947. U Aung Zan Wai, U Tin Tut, U Pe Khin, Bo Hmu Aung, Sir Maung Gyi , Bo Khin Maung Galay, Thakin Wa Tin, Dr. Sein Mya Maung, Myoma U Than Kywe, Bo Min Lwin, Bo Thein Swe, U Tin Nyunt, U Maung Maung, U Ko Ko Lay were most important negotiators and delegates of the historical Panglong Conference in 1947. General Aung San and all these leaders decided to join together to form the Union of Burma. Union day celebration is one of the greatest in the history of Burma. The day is celebrated in Myanmar as Union Day each February 12.
On 19 July 1947 U Saw, a conservative pre-war Prime Minister of Burma, engineered the assassination of General Aung San and several members of his cabinet, while meeting in the Secretariat. Myoma U Than Kywe led the ceremony of the First Martyrs' Day on July 20, 1947 in Rangoon.
19 July has been commemorated since as Martyrs' Day.
Burma gained independence from Britain on 4 January 1948. Then he became an executive member of the Governing council of the Rangoon Myoma National High School (1948-1964). He served the Member of Central Executive Committee of the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL), Burma.
U Nu, the Prime Minister at the time, U Than Kywe was elected the General Secretary of the State Commerce and Trade Council, Union of Burma 1952 -1962 with Thakin Kyaw Tun, U Kyaw Myint Lay, and Than ma ni -Bo Khin Maung etc. The post of General Secretary is same position as Director General and Deputy Minister for Ministry of Trade. The term director-general is a title given the highest executive officer of the Union of Burma.
He participated and built along with Prime Minister U Nu (a) Thakin Nu the Kaba Aye Pagoda and the Maha Pasana Guha (Great Cave) in 1952 in preparation for the Sixth Buddhist Synod.
He had many colleagues in his political life such as General Aung San, U Nu, U Ba Swe, U Kyaw Nyein, Thakin Kyaw Tun, Dagon Taya, U Htin Phat (Maung Htin) , Thuriya U Than Maung, U Ba Gyan (Chairman of Asian Youths Association), Widura Thakin Chit Maung, Thakin Hla Kywe, U Pyi Thein(Thaing expert), Bo Khin Maung (Than- ma-ni), General Aung Gyi, Professor Dr Than Tun, Thurira U Than Maung, U Tha Tun (Attorney-General ) and Burmese patriotic youths etc .
He had served the head of the Rangoon Municipal Administration, the Students and Youth Affairs Department and Rangoon Education Department.
He was elected as a Rangoon municipal councilor at Botathaung Township in the 1952 election. He headed, helped and renovated the Gold Umbrella of the Botataung Pagoda (Botahtaung Pagoda) along with Sir U Thwin and Prime Minister U Nu. Then he practiced the Vipassana meditation, had a vegetarian for 3 years during the Botahtaung pagoda donate the Gold Umbrella and reconstruction period.
Botahtaung means 1,000 military leaders. This name was derived from an event that took place more than 2,600 years ago when eight hair relics from the Buddha were brought over to Rangoon from India.
When the relics arrived, a guard of honor of 1,000 military leaders was formed to pay respect to the relics. The eight hair relics were enshrined in the pagoda, later to be distributed to other pagodas, with only one remaining in the Botataung Pagoda.
Botahtaung pagoda has been covered with plates of gold from the foot to the top of the pagoda. On the top it has an umbrella covered with gold and encrusted with many gems donated by the Myanmar people. The Botataung Pagoda is a very famous pagoda located in downtown Rangoon (Yangon), Burma (Myanmar), near the Yangon river.
In 1952, he married Daw Myint Myint Win (a) Daw Ahmar ေဒၚျမင့္ျမင့္ဝင္း (ေခၚ) ေဒၚအမာ (born November 28, 1931, Paungde Township , Pyay district in the Bago region of Burma), the daughter of rice mill owners U Ba U and Daw Tin Hla. They had four children. They are Daw Khin Mar Kywe, U Htay Kywe, Daw Mya Mya Than and U Myint Kywe (Myoma Myint Kywe) .
When he died at the age of 59, on 22nd Sep 1983, he left wife Daw Myint Myint Win (a) Daw Ahmar ေဒၚျမင့္ျမင့္ဝင္း (ေခၚ) ေဒၚအမာ (she died at the age of 81, on 22nd Sep 2012, Hlaing Township Yangon) and four children. His youngest son is Myoma Myint Kywe ဦးျမင့္ၾကြယ္ ( ၿမိဳ ႔မ ျမင့္ၾကြယ ္), a writer and historian from Burma (Myanmar).
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